Brown gas in chemistry

The three common phases or states of matter are gases, liquids, and solids. Gases have the lowest density of the three, are highly compressible, and completely fill any container in which they are placed.

Gases behave this way because their intermolecular forces are relatively weak, so their molecules are constantly moving independently of the other molecules present. Solids, in contrast, are relatively dense, rigid, and incompressible because their intermolecular forces are so strong that the molecules are essentially locked in place.

Liquids are relatively dense and incompressible, like solids, but they flow readily to adapt to the shape of their containers, like gases. We can therefore conclude that the sum of the intermolecular forces in liquids are between those of gases and solids. The state of a given substance depends strongly on conditions.

For example, H 2 O is commonly found in all three states: solid ice, liquid water, and water vapor its gaseous form. Under most conditions, we encounter water as the liquid that is essential for life; we drink it, cook with it, and bathe in it. When the temperature is cold enough to transform the liquid to ice, we can ski or skate on it, pack it into a snowball or snow cone, and even build dwellings with it. Water vapor the term vapor refers to the gaseous form of a substance that is a liquid or a solid under normal conditions so nitrogen N 2 and oxygen O 2 are referred to as gases, but gaseous water in the atmosphere is called water vapor is a component of the air we breathe, and it is produced whenever we heat water for cooking food or making coffee or tea.

Steam is used to drive large machinery, including turbines that generate electricity. The properties of the three states of water are summarized in Table The geometric structure and the physical and chemical properties of atoms, ions, and molecules usually do not depend on their physical state; the individual water molecules in ice, liquid water, and steam, for example, are all identical.

In contrast, the macroscopic properties of a substance depend strongly on its physical state, which is determined by intermolecular forces and conditions such as temperature and pressure. Except for hydrogen, the elements that occur naturally as gases are on the right side of the periodic table. Of these, all the noble gases group 18 are monatomic gases, whereas the other gaseous elements are diatomic molecules H 2N 2O 2F 2and Cl 2.

Oxygen can also form a second allotrope, the highly reactive triatomic molecule ozone O 3which is also a gas. Gallium Gawhich melts at only The rest of the elements are all solids under normal conditions. All of the gaseous elements other than the monatomic noble gases are molecules. W ithin the same group 1, 15, 16 and 17the lightest elements are gases. All gaseous substances are characterized by weak interactions between the constituent molecules or atoms.

Bulk matter can exist in three states: gas, liquid, and solid. Gases have the lowest density of the three, are highly compressible, and fill their containers completely. Elements that exist as gases at room temperature and pressure are clustered on the right side of the periodic table; they occur as either monatomic gases the noble gases or diatomic molecules some halogens, N 2O 2. Summary Bulk matter can exist in three states: gas, liquid, and solid.Dinitrogen tetroxide Dinitrogen trioxide Nitric oxide Nitrous oxide.

Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula NO 2. It is one of several nitrogen oxides. NO 2 is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of nitric acidmillions of tons of which are produced each year which is used primarily in the production of fertilizers.

At higher temperatures it is a reddish-brown. Nitrogen dioxide is a reddish-brown gas above The bond length between the nitrogen atom and the oxygen atom is This bond length is consistent with a bond order between one and two. Unlike ozoneO 3the ground electronic state of nitrogen dioxide is a doublet statesince nitrogen has one unpaired electron, [9] which decreases the alpha effect compared with nitrite and creates a weak bonding interaction with the oxygen lone pairs.

Nitrogen dioxide typically arises via the oxidation of nitric oxide by oxygen in air: [10]. Nitrogen dioxide is formed in most combustion processes using air as the oxidant. At elevated temperatures nitrogen combines with oxygen to form nitric oxide :.

In the laboratory, NO 2 can be prepared in a two-step procedure where dehydration of nitric acid produces dinitrogen pentoxidewhich subsequently undergoes thermal decomposition:.

The thermal decomposition of some metal nitrates also affords NO 2 :. Or finally by adding concentrated nitric acid over tin, hydrated stannic oxide is produced as byproduct. NO 2 exists in equilibrium with the colourless gas dinitrogen tetroxide N 2 O 4 :. NO 2 is favored at higher temperatures, while at lower temperatures, dinitrogen tetroxide N 2 O 4 predominates.

The chemistry of nitrogen dioxide has been investigated extensively.

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As suggested by the weakness of the N—O bond, NO 2 is a good oxidizer. Consequently, it will combust, sometimes explosively, with many compounds, such as hydrocarbons. It hydrolyses to give nitric acid and nitrous acid :. This reaction is one step in the Ostwald process for the industrial production of nitric acid from ammonia. The nitrogen dioxide so formed confers the characteristic yellow color often exhibited by this acid. NO 2 is used to generate anhydrous metal nitrates from the oxides: [10].

NO 2 is introduced into the environment by natural causes, including entry from the stratospherebacterial respiration, volcanos, and lightning.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center?

A lady introduce her husband's name with saying by which can stop or move train what is that name. Give points yo advocate thst biology is linked with physics chemistry mathsmatics geography. All Rights Reserved.

The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Elements and Compounds. Wiki User Nitrogen dioxide, or NO2.

Related Questions Asked in Science Is bromine gas red?

brown gas in chemistry

It is a reddish-brown colour. Asked in Elements and Compounds What is the color of nitrogen dioxide?

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It is a reddish brown gas NO2. Asked in Elements and Compounds What is the physical state of nitrogen dioxide? Nitrogen dioxide is a reddish-brown gas. Asked in Care of Horses What are reddish brown horses called? The coat color is "sorrel".

brown gas in chemistry

Jupiter has reddish brown cloud bands. Asked in Horses What horse is reddish brown? It called be a strawberry-rome horse or maybe even a chestnut. Asked in Trees, Apples Why redwood tree called redwood tree? Asked in Muscular System What molecules give muscles their reddish brown color? Asked in Chemistry Why can you see the movement of nitrogen dioxide gas in a container but not carbon dioxide?

Soldering with Browns Gas.

Carbon dioxide is a colorless gas while nitrogen dioxide is a gas with a reddish-brown color. Asked in Chemistry What is a gas that emits a reddish purple light? Iodine Vapor is a reddish purple gas. Asked in Genetics If your mom has reddish brown hair and your dad has black hair and you have black hair do you carry the recessive gene of reddish brown hair?Brown's Gas, often referred to as HHO, is 2 parts hydrogen gas, and one part oxygen gas by volume.

Because it has the same elements and in the same proportions as water vapor, and because it is composed of Oxygen and Hydrogen, it is often not clearly understood what makes Brown's gas different from what you might buy from commercial suppliers of industrial gas for instance. Ordinary hydrogen and oxygen gas, when purchased commercially, or when produced by ordinary electrolyzers, comes in the form of 0 2 and H 2. That is, the molecules of both gases form molecules of 2 atoms each.

This is a more stable state for these gases than when individual atoms are separate as molecules charged ions of one atom each. The problem with H 2 and 0 2 as a combustible gas, is that before they can react together to make H 2 O, they must first be broken apart into separate H and O atoms.

brown gas in chemistry

The energy required to do this is a large fraction of the energy you get back when they combine to make H 2 O. What makes Brown's gas unique, and much more valuable, is that the hydrogen and oxygen have not formed into H 2 and 0 2 molecules.

They are in their monatomic one atom per molecule state. In this state, 3. More importantly, however, is the reported results of using Brown's gas in internal combustion engines. Monatomic hydrogen makes a superior catalyst for breaking down and burning other fuels, such as petroleum based fuels. Increases in horsepower, mileage mpg and cleaner burning less emissions have all been reported by people introducing Brown's gas into their vehicle's intake air stream.

This article is only an introduction to the subject of Brown's gas. It is intended to give someone who has no previous explanation of the subject, a basic idea of what Brown's gas is. It's a pretty exciting subject though, and definitely merits further study. Home Log In. Online Store Hydrogen Assist Kits. Commercial Systems. Search Advanced Search. Documents All Documents.

Installation Instructions. HHO System Debugging. HHO Abbreviations.

What Is Brown's Gas

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Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown.Bulk matter can exist in three states: gas, liquid, and solid.

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Gases have the lowest density of the three, are highly compressible, and fill their containers completely. Pressure is defined as the force exerted per unit area; it can be measured using a barometer or manometer.

Four quantities must be known for a complete physical description of a sample of a gas: temperature, volume, amount, and pressure. The pressure exerted by an object is proportional to the force it exerts and inversely proportional to the area.

The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure and directly proportional to its temperature and the amount of gas. The proportionality constant, R, is called the gas constant. The ideal gas law describes the behavior of an ideal gas, a hypothetical substance whose behavior can be explained quantitatively by the ideal gas law and the kinetic molecular theory of gases.

Some values of R are given below. The relationship between the amounts of products and reactants in a chemical reaction can be expressed in units of moles or masses of pure substances, of volumes of solutions, or of volumes of gaseous substances. The ideal gas law can be used to calculate the volume of gaseous products or reactants as needed.

In the laboratory, gases produced in a reaction are often collected by the displacement of water from filled vessels; the amount of gas can be calculated from the volume of water displaced. The pressure exerted by each gas in a gas mixture is independent of the pressure exerted by all other gases present.

The amount of gas in a mixture may be described by its partial pressure or its mole fraction. In a mixture, the partial pressure of each gas is the product of the total pressure and the mole fraction.

The total pressure at constant temperature and volume is determined by the total number of moles of gas present, whether that total represents just one substance or a mixture. The behavior of ideal gases is explained by the kinetic molecular theory of gases.

Molecular motion, which leads to collisions between molecules and the container walls, explains pressure, and the large intermolecular distances in gases explain their high compressibility. Although all gases have the same average kinetic energy at a given temperature, they do not all possess the same root mean square speed.

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The actual values of speed and kinetic energy are not the same for all gas particles.Doc Brown's Chemistry Revision Notes. Gas preparation and collection methods revision notes.

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This page describes a variety of methods and techniques for preparing and collecting gases - summarised details including diagrams of the apparatus, the chemicals-reagents needed, and the gas preparation reaction equations.

Details of qualitative chemical tests for identifying gases, ions, compounds etc. Apparatus and method for preparing a sample of ammonia gas. Procedure for preparing and collecting a gas less dense lighter than air by heating solid reactants. The less dense gas rises into, and displaces, the more dense air downwards.

This method of gas preparation is called upward delivery. Heating a mixture of ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide solids gives ammonia which has a very pungent odour! See also method Ex 7. To make dry ammonia you need a U tube packed with granules of calcium oxide between the horizontal pyrex tube and the vertical inverted collection test tube.

Apparatus and method for preparing a sample of hydrogen gas. Procedure for preparing and collecting a gas less dense lighter than air by reacting a liquid and a solid. A mixture of zinc and hydrochloric acid makes hydrogen.

Hydrogen gives a squeaky pop! See also methods Ex 5. Apparatus and method for preparing a sample of nitrogen dioxide gas. Procedure for preparing and collecting a gas more dense heavier than air by heating the reactants.

The more dense gas sinks down into, and displaces, the less dense air upwards.


This method of gas preparation is called downward delivery. The solid 'deflacrates', it crackles as the gas formed splits the crystals apart. Method for preparing and collecting a gas more dense heavier than air by reacting a solid and a liquid. This is called downward delivery. Apparatus and method for preparing a sample of carbon dioxide gas. This method of gas collection is called downward delivery. Can also be done via Ex 6. See also Ex 8. Procedure - h ow can you prepare sulfur dioxide gas?

Apparatus and method for preparing a sample of sulphur dioxide gas.

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The nasty choking gas turns potassium dichromate VI paper from orange to green. Should be done in fume cupboard. Procedure - h ow can you prepare hydrogen chloride gas? Apparatus and method for preparing a sample of hydrogen chloride gas. Procedure - h ow can you prepare chlorine gas?

Very dangerous and should be done in a fume cupboard. The potassium manganate VIIold name potassium permanganate, acts as an oxidising agent - it oxidises the chloride ion Cl - to chlorine molecules Cl 2. All of these can be done via methods Ex. Apparatus and method for preparing and collecting a gas of any density by reacting a solid and a liquid at room temperature.

This is called collecting over wateror displacement of water or pneumatic trough collection. Apparatus and method for preparing a sample of oxygen gas.